Optimal Working Frequencies (MHz) for: US EAST COAST :: NW7US :: HFRadio.org
July 2011 -- Special Notice: HFRadio.org and related websites are services paid for by Tomas David Hood, and by the occassional donations from visitors to these websites. ECONONMICALLY, TIMES ARE VERY ROUGH. Donations have been few and far between. Would you please help out, today, to help me offset the cost of running this server and providing these web resources (space weather, amateur radio, shortwave listening, and more)? If you can help, today, please click the Donation button to make a donation to HFRadio.org -->
Main Propagation Page

Follow @hfradiospacewx on Twitter
Follow @NW7US on Twitter
NW7US


I highly recommend the following...

+
NEW! ACE HF Pro
This is the best propagation modeling and circuit simulation software for Amateur and Shortwave Radio Operators
ACE-HF Modeling Software


+
PropLab Pro
Best ionospheric ray-tracing software for Radio Operators
PropLab Pro Ray-tracing Software


+
Hot: STD Space Weather Course
This is an excellent self-study course on Space Weather and Radio Propagation. This is a very in-depth and rich course that will equip you with the knowledge you need for understanding Space Weather, the ionosphere, how radio signals propagate via the ionosphere, and much more. Check it out!
STD Space Weather Course


+
Take a listen to the Space Weather Podcast!

NW7US Space Weather / Radio Proapgation Podcast; E4 - Subject: No more sunspots by 2015!? It is possible, if the trend revealed in current sunspot research at Kitt Peak, AZ, continues. Listen now!

Podcast home: NW7US Podcast


+
Gain the on-air edge: This article explains how the ANTENNA is the key! -> Read this introduction to Antenna Modeling


STEREO 3D

STEREO 3D IMAGE

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 5-min.

X-ray plot

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 1-min.

X-ray plot

Geomagnetic Conditions (Kp)

plot of Kp

Satellite Environment Plot:


Satellite Environment Plot





Main Propagation Menu:

+ Sunspot Cycle/MUF/FOT Tables
+ Current Optimal Frequencies
+ Aurora Resources

How-To Articles:

- Is HF Propagation Reciprocal?
- De-mystifying HF Radio Propagation and Modeling

Check out the ACE-HF propagation software - the latest is version 2.05. ACE-HF is propagation forecasting and modeling for Amateur Radio as well as for Shortwave radio Listening and general HF operation. This software is even used by the military and other clients around the world. This software is developed and maintained by the same engineers that keep VOACAP up-to-date. As a result, this software is the most accurate user interface integrated with VOACAP. CHECK IT OUT, TODAY. This software is the most accurate modeling software available, and is endorsed by NW7US. Read the details to find out why.




Main Site Menu:

- Main NW7US Page
- About NW7US
- About Amateur Radio
- Discussion Forums (Hot!)
- Feedback - Contact NW7US




Tomas David Hood - NW7US - that is me, the fellow that runs this website. I am a musician. You can listen to my music by clicking on the following banner, then click the 'Listen to All Tracks' button. If you would, please vote for each song. It helps me in my musical journey! (You can also leave me a comment on what you think about my music.)


Please help me keep this site running:

This website is kept alive by Tomas (NW7US), out of "spare change" (which there's not always enough of), and, by the kind, helpful people who visit this website. Would you like to help me keep this site running 24/7? If you are able to help me keep this website up and running, please: help me keep this site running for everyone... click on this donation button:


There are other ways that you can help me keep this site up and running. Here are a few other ways:

1. Send your donation via postal service. Make your donation payable to: Tomas Hood, PO Box 9, Stevensville, Montana 59870-0009.

2. Purchase ACE-HF PRO Propagation Software Version 2.05 - a small proceed will be sent to HFRadio.org to help keep the site running. Be sure to mention that you are buying this software through HFRadio.org.

3. Purchase one or more of the following Solar Terrestrial Dispatch (STD) products, and a small proceed will be sent to HFRadio.org:

+
+
+

4. Make a purchase through the HFRadio.org affiliation with Amazon.com.



Other links of interest:

- PropNET - live propagation studies

Want to learn about Propagation and Space Weather? - Take the STD Space Weather Education Course, today!

- Shortwave Radio Resource Center
- Shortwave Broadcasting Search

Comments? Please use the feedback form. I look forward to hearing your comments.

Check out some of the other activities that I am involved in:
+
+
+
+
+

More resources for you:

+
Join the On-line Propagation Discussion Forum, today! We need your input and participation. The NW7US Discussion Forums include:

Google
 
Web hfradio.org


Subscribe to my Space WX RSS Feed:
(Opera 9.x):
Widgetize!


Solar Sunspot Cycle 24 Progress

Solar Cycle 24 Smoothed Sunspot Progress
Solar Cycle 24 10.7-cm Monthly Progress
[ Solar Cycle Details ]





This page was rendered on 26-Jul-14 1509 UTC.
This page was first created in 1998.

Current Sunspot Cycle 24 Activity and Space Weather

Sun Spots: 65 as of 07/25/2014 :: 10.7-cm Flux: 107 SFU
(SFU=Solar Flux Units)

X-ray Solar Flares:
6h hi [C2.2][0657Z 07/25] 24h hi [C2.2][0657Z 07/25]

Planetary A-index (Ap): 6 | Planetary K-index (Kp): 2
Solar Wind: 398 km/s at 2.0 protons/cm3, Bz is -6.0 nT
(Jul 26, 2014 at 1452 UT)

Optimal Working Frequencies (MHz) for: US EAST COAST

For July 2014 using
the predicted smoothed sunspot number (SSN)
and 10.7-cm Radio Flux (SFU)
.

Created by NW7US on July 04, 2011
These NW7US radio signal path propagation tables are set up to cover main regions of the world. Each chart displays the FOT (or Optimal Working Frequency) at each UTC hour, for the paths given.

These radio frequencies are a percentage below the MUF (Maxiumum Usable Frequencies), and should be acurate for about 80 percent of the month. However, if a geomagnetic storm, a solar flare, or other event occurs, there is no promise that a signal will actually make it through the path in question. Often, during ionospheric storms and solar events (like a solar flare), the FOT is lower, or the path might even be closed.

UTC Time:
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
TO/FROM US EAST COAST
CARIBBEAN
23
22
22
21
19
17
16
15
14
13
12
12
14
16
17
18
20
20
21
22
22
22
23
23
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA
26
26
25
23
21
19
18
16
15
14
14
13
15
17
19
21
22
23
24
25
26
26
26
26
CENTRAL SOUTH AMERICA
31
28
25
23
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
18
21
23
25
27
29
30
31
32
32
32
33
33
SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA
24
19
18
17
16
16
15
15
14
14
14
13
19
22
25
26
28
29
31
31
32
33
31
28
WESTERN EUROPE
19
18
16
15
14
14
14
14
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
21
21
20
EASTERN EUROPE
13
12
12
11
11
15
16
16
16
17
19
20
20
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
21
19
18
15
EASTERN NORTH AMERICA
10
10
10
9
9
8
7
7
6
6
5
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA
22
22
22
21
20
19
17
16
14
13
12
12
14
16
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
22
22
22
WESTERN NORTH AMERICA
29
29
29
28
27
26
24
22
20
18
17
17
18
20
22
24
25
26
27
28
29
29
29
29
SOUTHERN NORTH AMERICA
23
23
22
22
21
19
17
16
15
13
13
12
13
15
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
HAWAII
27
28
28
28
28
26
24
22
20
18
17
16
16
16
15
15
17
19
21
23
24
25
26
27
NORTHERN AFRICA
24
22
20
18
17
16
16
17
17
17
20
22
24
25
26
27
28
28
29
29
29
28
28
26
CENTRAL AFRICA
20
19
17
16
15
15
16
17
17
17
20
22
24
25
26
27
28
28
28
28
28
27
24
22
SOUTH AFRICA
17
16
15
15
14
14
14
19
18
18
19
22
24
26
28
29
31
31
29
25
22
20
19
18
MIDDLE EAST
21
19
17
17
17
17
15
14
14
16
18
19
20
21
22
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
22
JAPAN
22
23
22
21
21
20
18
17
16
16
16
18
19
20
19
17
16
16
16
17
19
20
21
22
CENTRAL ASIA
23
23
22
21
20
19
17
16
14
14
16
18
19
21
21
22
22
20
18
17
16
16
19
21
INDIA
10
10
10
10
15
17
15
14
14
16
18
19
21
22
22
21
21
20
19
18
17
13
11
11
THAILAND
18
20
21
20
19
17
15
14
14
15
17
19
20
21
22
23
23
22
20
18
17
16
15
15
AUSTRALIA
34
34
34
33
33
30
27
25
23
21
20
18
18
18
17
16
15
15
14
14
20
26
30
32
CHINA
21
22
21
20
19
17
16
15
14
14
17
19
20
21
21
20
18
16
15
14
14
17
19
20
SOUTH PACIFIC
33
33
32
31
30
27
23
17
16
16
15
15
14
14
14
14
13
13
13
25
28
30
32
32












Purchase the STD Internet Space Weather & Radio Propagation Forecasting Course


Solar Terrestrial Dispatch (STD) is a world-leader in space weather forecasting services, as was demonstrated in late October and early November 2003 (Oler, C., "Prediction Performance of Space Weather Forecast Centers during the Extreme Space Weather Events of October and November 2003," published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Space Weather" by the American Geophysical Union in 2004). A copy of this paper is available here.

STD expertise is used to provide high-quality space weather forecast services to many electrical power companies across North America, guidance to spacecraft operators and consultation to many others.

STD has developed a special space weather course designed to teach individuals without any background how to predict space weather (see below). The STD Space Weather Course was the recipient of the Study-Web Academic Excellence award.

The course is available on-line as a small group of downloadable Adobe Acrobat Reader documents comprising over 630 pages of printed material (for sample pages, click here). You can therefore choose to study the material on your computer or print it out for study.

The course, if you choose the option, also includes the STD workhorse, Space Weather Information Monitor (SWIM) software, which is the most comprehensive space and weather information monitor in the world. The course (if you choose the option, below) also includes the STD's powerful and popular Proplab-Pro HF Radio Propagation Laboratory software! All software products are optional elaborate tools that will contribute to your application of the knowledge obtained through this course.

Purchasing the Course

Please choose one of the following course packages.
  • Purchase: The course alone (no software), delivered over the Internet (as a download).

      Now: $200.00 - normally $250 USD
    • Pay Online by clicking the PayPal button:
      Note: This is only the course - no software. You are paying for the knowledge and content.

  • Purchase: The course with all the software, delivered over the Internet (as a download).

    • SALE! BUY NOW AT $275.00 - compare to the normal price: $300 USD

    • Includes this software: SWIM, and PropLab-pro Version 3.0 (NEW!)
    • Pay Online by clicking the PayPal button:
      Note: You are paying for the knowledge and content of this course, PLUS GETTING THE SOFTWARE, TOO!

NOTE: After you finish ordering, through PayPal, please allow me time to process your order. I am not always in front of my computer, so it may take a while for me to finish the processing of your order. I shall e-mail you the moment I have processed the order, and will give you specific directions on how to download the Course file(s). PLEASE BE PATIENT WITH ME!

A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:
  • The Sun
    • Basics of the Sun
    • Sunspots
      • Types of Sunspots
      • Sunspot Magnetic Fields
    • Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
    • Solar Cycles
    • Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
    • Sources of Information and Imagery
  • Interplanetary Space
    • The Solar Wind
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Heliospheric Current Sheet
    • Solar Sector Structures
  • The Earth
    • Magnetosphere
      • The quiet magnetosphere
      • The disturbed magnetosphere
      • Understanding Magnetic Indices
      • Magnetic Storms
        • Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
        • Gradual Storm Commencements
      • Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
        • Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
        • Effects on Other Long Conductors
    • Ionosphere
      • Formation of Ionospheric Layers
      • Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
  • Solar Disturbances
    • Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
      • Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
      • Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
      • Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
      • Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
      • Solar Cycle Dependencies
    • Solar Flares
      • Basic Nature of Flares
      • Types of Flares
      • Flare Rating Systems
      • Significance of Proton Flares
      • Ground Level Events (GLEs)
      • Fast Transit Events
      • Interpreting Magnetograms
      • Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptability
      • Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
      • Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
      • Sources of Solar Flare Information
    • Solar Coronal Holes
      • Coronal Hole Basics
      • Recurrence
      • Solar Cycle Correlations
      • Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
      • Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
    • Filament Eruptions
      • Filaments and Prominences
      • Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
      • Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
  • Auroral Activity
    • Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
    • Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
    • Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
    • Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
    • Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
    • Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
    • Information Sources
  • Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
    • Atmospheric Drag
    • Surface Charging Anomalies
    • Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
    • Interplanetary Shocks
    • Magnetopause Crossings
  • Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
    • Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
      • Rainfall
      • Temperatures
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Storm Tracks
      • Ozone Correlations
    • Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
      • Pressure and Winds
      • Lightning
      • Storm Systems
      • Ozone Responses
  • Radio Propagation
    • Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
      • Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
      • Understanding Plasmas
      • Importance of Electron Collisions
      • Appleton/Hartree Contributions
      • Signal Polarization and Coupling
      • Ionospheric Absorption
        • Deviative Absorption
        • Non-Deviative Absorption
      • Fading
      • Multipathing
      • Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
      • Structure of the Ionosphere
        • Ionospheric Layers
        • Importance of Sporadic-E
        • Effects of Spread-F
        • Solar-Cycle Dependencies
        • Models of the Ionosphere
          • Simple Mathematical Models
          • Numerical Maps
          • CCIR
          • URSI
          • The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
          • Others
        • Probing the Ionosphere
        • Probing Techniques
        • Probing Instruments
        • Sources of Ionosonde Information
    • Basic Ray-Tracing Concepts
      • Ordinary vs Extraordinary Signals
      • Becoming Familiar with Ray-Tracing Software
    • Ray-Tracing in Three-Dimensions
      • Ray-Tracing Software Considerations
      • Preparing for 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Performing 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Studying 3D Ray-Tracing Results
    • Vertical Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Reflection Behavior
      • Critical Frequencies
      • Ray-Tracing Vertically-Incident Signals
    • Oblique Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Refraction/Reflection Characteristics
      • Effects of Geomagnetic Activity
      • Effects of Solar Activity
      • Ray-Tracing Obliquely Incident Radio Signals
      • Determination of Maximum Usable Frequencies
        • Simple Empirical Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Effects of Sporadic-E
      • Non-Great-Circle (NGC) Propagation
        • Responsible Conditions
        • Compensation Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques to Analyze NGC Propagation
      • Chordal-Hop and Inter-Layer Ducting Propagation
        • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • Analysis using Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Searching for and Exploiting Exotic Propagation Paths
        • Properties of Exotic Paths
        • Searching for Exotic Paths using 3D Ray-Tracing Techniques
        • Determining the Most Reliable Exotic Radio Paths
    • Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
        • Solar Flares and Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Coronal Holes and High Speed Solar Wind Streams
        • Filament Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Impact of Flare Related Radio Noise Bursts
      • Short Wave Fadeouts
      • Sudden Phase Anomalies
      • Sudden Frequency Deviations
      • Devastating Effects of Polar Cap Absorption
      • Disturbances and their Effects on Satellite Communications
  • Radio Propagation Prediction Methods
    • Short-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Medium-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Long-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Sources of Forecasting Information
  • Applied Forecasting Techniques
    • Climatology
    • Pattern Recognition
    • Compiling Necessary Information
    • Exploiting Databases
    • Computer Related Aids
    • Studying Real-Life Examples
    • Developing Experience and "Intuition"
  • Field Experience
    • The STD SW Course presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.
    • The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.
  • Course Completed


Although this course is largely self-taught, STD will provide support if you run into difficulties. There are no prerequisites.




Data and images courtesy of IPS Australia, NOAA, NASA, SWPC, SIDC

Layout, analysis, commentary, and certain forecasts and content is
Copyright, 2008, Tomas David Hood (NW7US), all rights reserved.
No part, except for the space weather 'banners', may be copied without express permission.

Last Update: May 19, 2008